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HSC Maharshtra Board Chapter 2 Solutions VSA

1➤ What are hypertonic solutions? Hypertonic solution:

=> If two solutions have unequal osmotic pressures, the more concentrated solution with higher osmotic pressure is said to be hypertonic solution.

2➤ What is a cryoscopic constant?

=> Ans: Cryoscopic constant: Cryoscopic constant is the depression in freezing point produced by I molal solution of a nonvolatile solute.

3➤ Write the effect of dissolution of a nonvolatile solute on the freezing point of solvent.

=> The freezing point of solvent is lowered by the dissolution of nonvolatile solute into it..

4➤ State Raoult's law.

=> Ans: Raoult's law states that the partial vapour pressure of any volatile component of a solution is equal to the vapour pressure of the pure component multiplied by its mole fraction in the solution.

5➤ State Henry's law.

=> Henry's law states that the solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the pressure of the gas over the solution.

6➤ What type of solutions exhibit positive deviations from Raoult's

=> Ans: The solutions in which solute-solvent intermolecular attractions weaker than those between solute-solute molecules and solvent-solvent are molecules, exhibit positive deviations.

7➤ What is enthalpy change and volume change of mixing of two components forming an ideal solution?

=> 1. No heat is evolved or absorbed when two components forming an ideal solution are mixed. Thus, AH=0. There is no volume change when two compo solution are mixed. Thus, Ami V-0. forming an ideal

8➤ The vapour pressures of pure liquids A and B are 0.600 bar and 0.933 bar respectively, at a certain temperature. What is the mole fraction of liquid B in the solution when the total vapour pressure of their mixture is 0.8 bar?

=> alculation: From formula, P= (PP)x₂ + P 0.8 bar 933 bar -0.600 bar) x₂ + 0.600 bar 0.333x₂ 0.8-0.60 0.2 0333 = 0.6

9➤ Explain relative lowering of vapour pressure.

=> Ans. Relative lowering of vapour pressure: If P, and P are the respective vapour pressures of a pure liquid (solvent) and the solution containing a nonvolatile solute then P

10➤ Anhydrous sodium sulphate dissolves in water with the evolution of heat. What is the effect of temperature on its solubility?

=> Ans. Since the dissolution of anhydrous sodium sulphate in water is an exothermic process due to evolution of heat, according to Le Chatelier's principle, its solubility decreases with the increase in temperature.

11➤ Why does the solubility of gases in liquids depend upon pressure?

=> Ans. (1) Since the gases are highly compressible, their solubility in liquids is highly influenced by pressure changes. (2) As the external pressure increases, the solubility increases at constant temperature. the gases

12➤ What is point defect?

=> Ans. Point defect: The defect or imperfection produced in the arrangement of a point like constituent particle, e.g. an atom or an ion or a molecule in the crystalline structure is called point defect. The point defects are classified as follows: (1) Vacancy defect. (2) Interstitial defect. (3) Impurity defect.

13➤ What are hypotonic solutions?

=> Ans. Hypotonic solutions: When two solutions have different osmotic pressures, then the solution having lower osmotic pressure is said to be a hypotonic solution with respect to the other solution.

14➤ Give an example of an ideal solution.

=> Ans. A liquid mixture of benzene and toluene which have nearly identical physical properties and intermolecular forces forms an ideal solution.

15➤ Q. 15. What are the units of molal elevation constant?

=> Ans. Molal elevation constant, K, has units K kg mol-¹ (or °C kg mol-¹) Therefore, molal elevation constant is the elevation in boiling point produced by 1 molal solution of a atile solute.

16➤ What is cryoscopic constant (or molal depression constant)?

=> Ans. Molal depression constant: It is defined as the depression in freezing point, produced by dissolving one mole of a solute in 1 kg (or 1000 g) of a solvent (i.e. 1 molal solution)..

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