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1➤ Coordination compounds used in Medicine.

=> Ans. The complexes are used on a large scale in medicine. Many medicines in the complex form are more stable, more effective and can be assimilated easily. For example, platinum complex [Pt(NH),C1,] known as cisplatin is effectively used in cancer treatment. EDTA is used to treat poisoning by heavy metals like lead.

2➤ Write four uses of chlorine

=> For bleaching. For the preparation of insecticides. For removing stains in the fabric. For purification of water. For the preparation of bleaching powder.

3➤ Write three physical properties and three uses of sulfuric acid .

=> It is a common chemical in the preparation of fertilizers. For example, ammonium sulfate and superphosphate. We use it in the manufacture of dyes, shades, and paints. It is a common chemical in the manufacture of explosives. For example, TNT. Other imperative chemicals need the presence of sulfuric acid. Without sulfuric acid, we cannot get these chemicals. For example, hydrochloric, phosphoric and nitric acid. It is also needed for sodium carbonate. We utilise it as a part of the refining of petroleum. It acts as a pickling agent. This chemical is common as a laboratory agent, dehydrating agent and an oxidizing.

4➤ cast iron and wrought iron with their uses?

=> 1. Cast iron is hard and brittle and contains 4% carbon. Uses: For making pipes, manufacturing automotive parts, pots, pans, utensils, etc. 2. Wrought iron is very soft and contains less than 0.2% carbon. Uses: For making pipes, bars for stay bolts, engine bolts, and rivets, etc.

5➤ Coordination compounds used in Electroplating.

=> Ans. Electroplating involves deposition of a metal on the other metal. For smooth plating, it is necessary to supply continuously the metal ions in small amounts. For this purpose, a solution of a coordination compound is used which dissociates to a very less extent. For example, for uniform and thin plating of silver and gold, the complexes K[Ag(CN)2] and K[Au(CN),] are used.

6➤ Coordination compounds used in the estimation of hardness of water.

=> Ans. (1) The hardness of water is due to the presence Mg2+ and Ca2+ ion in water. (2) The strong field ligand EDTA forms stable complexes with Mg2+ and Ca2+. Hence these ions can be removed by adding EDTA to hard water. Similarly, these ions can be selectively estimated due to the difference in their stability constants.

7➤ Methyl alcohol.

=> Ans. (1) Methyl alcohol is used as an industrial solvent for dissolving oils, fats, gums, etc. (2) It is used for dry cleaning and preparation of perfumes and varnishes. (3) It is used as antifreeze agent for automobile radiators at low temperature. (4) It is used in the preparation of methyl chloride, dimethyl sulphate and formaldehyde. (5) It is used to denature ethyl alcohol.

8➤ Ethyl alcohol.

=> Ans. (1) Ethyl alcohol is used as solvent for dyes, oils, perfumes, cosmetics and drugs. (2) A mixture of 10-20% ethyl alcohol with petrol is used as motor fuel. (3) A mixture of ethyl alcohol and calcium acetate in gel form is used as solid fuel. (4) It is widely used in beverages. (5) Since ethyl alcohol has low freezing point, it is used in thermometer. (6) It is an effective tropical antiseptic, therefore it is used in many mouth washes. (7) It kills micro-organisms on wound surface and in the mouth but its low toxicity does not kill the cells of the skin or mouth tissues. (8) It is used in the preparation of chloroform, iodoform, acetic acid and ethers. (9) It is used as fuel.

9➤ Phenol.

=> (1) Phenol is used in the preparation of phenol-formaldehyde polymer which is used in a plastic bakelite. (2) It is used in the preparation of phenol-phthalein-an indicator and in certain dyes. (3) It is used in the preparation of drugs such as salol, aspirin, etc. (4) It is used in the preparation of dettol, which is an antiseptic. (5) It is used in the preparation of 2, 4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid which is used as selective weed killer. (6) It is used to prepare picric acid which is used as explosive

10➤ Ethers.

=> Ans. (1) Diethyl ether is used as industrial solvent for oils, fats, gum, resin, etc. (2) It is used as solvent in the reaction of Grignard reagent. (3) It is used as refrigerant. (4) Natalite, a mixture of diethyl ether and ethyl alcohol is used as fuel.

11➤ uses of alloy.

=> It is used for making statues, medals, and trophies. Cupra-nickel, an alloy of copper and nickel is used for making machinery parts of marine ships, boats. For example, marine condenser tubes. Stainless steels are used in the construction of the outer fuselage of ultra-high-speed aircraft.

12➤ Write any two properties and uses of actinides.

=> The elements of Actinides are used as nuclear reactors and in nuclear weapons. There are different uses of Uranium and Thorium. Some of the elements in the actinides series are also used as smoke detectors. The Actinides are typical metals and they have properties of D block and F block elements.

13➤ uses of LDP.

=> It is mainly used in the preparation of pipes for agriculture, irrigation, domestic water line connections as well as insulation to electric cables. It is also used in submarine cable insulation.

14➤ nylon 6,6

=> Nylon-6,6 is prepared by the method of condensation polymerisation process. Hexamethylenediamine combines with adipic acid to give the macromolecule Nylon-6,6 with the elimination of water molecule. Used in making sheets, bristles for brushes and in the textile industry.

15➤ high density polythene

=> HDP is used in the manufacture of toys and other household articles like buckets, dustbins, bottles, pipes, etc. b. It is used to prepare laboratory wares and other objects where high tensile strength and stiffness is required.

16➤ Give examples of industrial application of enzyme catalysis.

=> Ans. (1) Glucose Isomerase (enzyme) is used in conversion of glucose to sweet-tasting fructose. (2) New antibiotics are manufactured using penicillin acylase (enzyme). (3) Laundry detergentts are manufactured using proteases (enzyme). (4) Esters used in cosmetics are manufactured using genetically engineered enzyme.

17➤ Polythene.

=> Ans. It is used in the manufacture of bags, bottles, toys, pipes, etc.

18➤ Nylon.

=> Ans. It is used in the manufacture of ropes, carpets, tyre cords, fabrics.

19➤ Orlon

=> Ans. It is used in making blankets as artificial wool.

20➤ Teflon.

=> Ans. It is used in coating for cooking pans, gaskets, valves, etc.

21➤ PVC.

=> Ans. It is used in the manufacture of sheets, water pipes, hand bags, etc.

22➤ Melamine

=> Ans. It is used in making crockeries. (15) LDP.

23➤ HDP

=> Ans. (1) HDP is used in manufacture of toys and other household articles like buckets, dustbins, bottles, pipes, etc. (2) It is used to prepare laboratory wares and other objects where high tensile strength and stiffness is required.

24➤ Explain the different applications of nanoparticles.

=> (1) Nanoparticles contribute to stronger, lighter, cleaner and smarter surfaces and systems. They are used in the manufacture of scratchproof eyeglasses, transport, sunscreen, crack resistant paints, etc. (2) Used in electronic devices like Magnetoresistive Random Access Memory (MRAM). (3) Nanotechnology plays an important role in water purification techniques. Silver nanoparticles are used in water purification system to get safe drinking water. (4) Self cleansing materials : Lotus is an example of self cleansing. Nanostructures on lotus leaves repel water which carries dirt as it rolls off. Lotus effect is the basis of self cleaning windows.


1➤ What are the uses of semiconductors?

=> Ans. The uses of semiconductors are as follows: (1) They are used in transistors, digital computers and cameras. (2) They are used in solar cells and television sets. (3) By combining n-type and p-type semiconductors, n-p junctions are formed which are effectively used in rectifiers or to convert light energy into electrical energy.

2➤ Which of the four colligative properties is most often used for molecular mass determination? Why?

=> Ans. (1) Since osmotic pressure has large values, it can be measured more precisely.. (2) The osmotic pressure can be measured at a suitable constant temperature. (3) The molecular masses can be measured more accurately. (4) Therefore, it is more useful to determine molecular masses of expensive substances by osmotic pressure.

3➤ Explain reverse osmosis. OR How can pure water be obtained from sea water?

=> Ans. Reverse osmosis: The phenomenon of the passage of solvent like water under high pressure from the concentrated aqueous solution like sea water into pure water through a semipermeable membrane is called reverse osmosis. The osmotic pressure of sea water is about 30 atmospheres. Hence, when pressure more than 30 atmospheres is applied on the solution side, regular osmosis stops and reverse osmosis starts. Hence pure water from sea water enters the other side of pure water. For this purpose, suitable semipermeable membrane is required which can withstand high pressure conditions over a long period. This method is used successfully in Florida since 1981 producing more than 10 million litres of pure water per day.

4➤ What are the applications of a buffer solution?

=> (1) In a biochemical system: Blood in our body has pH 7.36-7.42 due to (HCO + H₂CO,) and little change of 0.2 pH unit may be fatal. For example, saline solution used in intravenous injection contains a buffer solution maintaining pH of the blood in the required range. (2) Agriculture: The properties of soil depend upon its pH. The salts present in soil such as phosphates, carbonates, bicarbonates and organic acids impart definite pH to the soil. Depending on pH the fertilizers are selected.. (3) Industry: In many industries, buffer solutions are used to carry out chemical processes very effectively, such as the industries of paper, dye, paints, drugs, ink, etc. (4) Medicines : Many medicines particularly in the liquid state have a good stability and optimum activity at a definite pH, for which buffer solutions are used. For example, penciline preparations are carried out in the presence of a buffer of sodium citrate. A buffer solution of magnesium citrate is prepared by adding citric acid to Mg(OH)₂. (5) Analytical chemistry: In a qualitative analysis, the precipitation of groups, the chemical tests for detection of ions, etc. are carried out at a definite pH. For example, precipitation of cations of IIIA are carried in the presence of a basic buffer of pH 8-10 obtained by using NH,OH and NH Cl.

5➤ Explain the application of solubility product in the removal of hardness of water.

=> Ans. The hardness of water is due to presence of Ca²+ ions. It is surprising to know that Ca²+ ions can be removed by adding more Ca²+ ions in the form of lime Ca(OH),, to the hard water. The OH ions of lime react with HCO, ions present in the hard water to form CO ions. OH(aq) + HCO3(aq) →→ CO3(aq) + H₂O(1) Solubility product of CaCO, is very low (K-4.5 x 10 "). Addition of lime makes IP > >Ksp which results in the precipitation of CaCO, and thereby removal of hardness.

6➤ What are the applications of Hess's law?

=> Applications: Hess's law is used: (1) To calculate heat of formation, combustion, neutralisation, ionization, etc. (2) To calculate the heat of reactions which may not take place normally or directly. (3) To calculate heats of extremely slow or fast reactions. (4) To calculate enthalpies of reactants and products.

7➤ What are the applications of Kohlarausch's law?

=> (1) With this law, the molar conductivity of a strong electrolyte at zero concentration can be determined. For example, (2) A values of weak electrolyte with those of strong electrolytes can be obtained. For example, Ao(CH₂COOH) = A(HCI) + Ao(CH,COONa) -^o(NaCl)

8➤ What are the applications of electrolysis?

=> Ans. (1) Refining of metals and electroplating are achieved by electrolysis. (2) Sea water is the source of 300000 tonnes of Mg produced every year by electrolysis. (3) Electrochemical art: Al, Cr and Sn can be coloured by an electrochemical process called anodising. In this process metal anode oxidises to give metal oxide coat. When an organic dye is added to the electrolyte, dye molecules soak forming spongy surface of coating and become trapped with the hardening of the metal oxide surface.

9➤ What are the applications of electrochemical series (or electromotive series)? (1 mark for each application)

=> Ans. The applications of electrochemical series (or electromotive series) are as follows: (1) Relative strength of oxidising agents in terms of Ered values : The Ered value is a measure of the tendency of the species to be reduced i.e., to accept electrons and act as an oxidising agent. The species mentioned on left hand side of the half reactions are oxidising agents. The substances in the upper positions in the series and hence in the upper left side of the half reactions have large positive Ered values hence are stronger oxidising agents. For example, F₂, Ce, Au, etc. As we move down the series, the oxidising power decreases. Hence from the position of the elements in the electrochemical series, oxidising agents can be selected. (2) Relative strength of reducing agents in terms of Ered values: The lower Ered value means lower tendency to accept electrons but higher tendency to lose electrons. The tendency for reverse reaction or oxidation increases as Ered becomes more negative (2) In the manufacture of dyes, fertilizers like ammonium sulphate, super phosphate, detergents. (3) As an electrolyte in lead storage battery. (4) As a dehydrating agent. (5) As an oxidising agent. (6) For refining petroleum. (7) As a pickling agent for removing layers of basic oxides from the metal surfaces like Fe, Cu, etc. before the metals are galvanized. electroplated, etc.

10➤ What are the uses of interhalogen compounds?

=> he uses of interhalogen compounds are as follows: (1) ICI is used as a halogenating agent and also in the estimation of jodine number of fats and oils. (2) In the preparation of polyhalides, interhalogen compounds are (3) CIF, and BrF, are widely used as fluorinating agent. They are used in the separation of isotope by fluorinating (4) In propellants, CIF, and IF, are used as oxidisers. (5) They are used as non-aqueous solvents.

11➤ What are the uses of: (1) Helium (2) Neon (3) Argon.

=> Ans. (1) Uses of helium (He): (1) A mixture of helium (85%) and oxygen (15%) is used for filling. balloons. (ii) A mixture of helium and oxygen is also used for respiration by sea divers instead of air because helium is less soluble in blood than nitrogen under high pressure. It is also used for treatment of asthma. (ii) Helium is used in producing inert atmosphere in metallurgical operations and welding of metals. (iv) Liquid helium is used in producing low temperature required (v) Helium is also used in producing lasers in low temperature gas for research thermometry. (vi) It is used in magnetic resonance imaging. (2) Uses of neon (Ne): (1) Neon is used in the production of neon discharge lamps and signs by filling Ne in glass discharge tubes. (ii) Neon signs are visible from a long distance and also have high penetrating power in mist or fog. (1) A mixture of neon and hellum is used in voltage stabilizers. and current rectifiers. (iv) Neon is also used in the production of lasers and fluorescent tubes. (3) Uses of argon (Ar): (1) Argon is used to fill fluorescent tubes and radio valves. (ii) It is used to provide inert atmosphere for welding and production of steel. (iii) It is used along with neon in neon sign lamps to obtain. different colours. (iv) A mixture of 85% Ar and 15% N, is used in electric bulbs to enhance the life of the filament.

12➤ What are the uses of transition metals?

=> Ans. Transition metals are used as: (A) Catalysts: (1) MnO, is used as a catalyst in the decomposition of KCIO, 2KCIO, -KC1+30, A (2) In the manufacture of ammonia by Haber's process, Mo/Fe used as a catalyst. is Nau+ 2NH (3) In the synthesis of gasoline by Fischer Tropsch process, Co-Th alloy is used as a catalyst. (4) Finely divided Ni (formed by reduction of heated oxide in hydrogen) is very efficient catalyst in hydrogenation of ethene to ethane at 140 °C. A HC CHH-H NI 10 CHC-CH₂ HแปŒC.CH, Ethene Ethane (B) In the formation of alloys: (1) The transition metals form a large number of alloys among themselves, which are hard with high melting points. (2) During alloy formation atoms of one metal are distributed randomly in the lattice of another metal. (3) The metals with similar atomic radii and similar properties readily form alloys. (4) These alloys have industrial importance. (5) The alloys can be ferrous alloys or nonferrous alloys.

13➤ What are the application of lanthanoids?

=> Ans. (1) Lanthanoid compounds are used in the colour television tubes and computer monitor. For example, mixed oxide (Eu. Y),0, 1 releases an intense red colour when bombarded with high energy electrons. (2) Lanthanoid lons are used as active lons in luminescent materials. (Optoelectronic application) (3) Nd YAG laser is the most notable application. (Nd YAG neodymium doped ytterium aluminium garnet) (4) Erbium doped fibre amplifiers are used optical fibre commu nication systems. (5) Lanthanoids are used in cars, superconductors and permanent magnets.

14➤ What are the applications of actinoids?

=> Ans. (1) Thorium oxide (ThO,) with 1% CeO, is used as a major source of indoor lighting, as well as for outdoor camping. (2) Uranium used in the nuclear reactors. (3) The isotopes of Thorium and Uranium have very long half-life, so that we get very negligible radiation from them: Hence they can be used safely.

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